DNA is the abbreviation of deoxyribonucleic acid, which is responsible for the genetic functioning of all human beings. Basically, it […]
Genetics is one of the most complex issues that exist, with various cases that have impacted the world by the […]
Genetic diseases are the most serious and lethal because they have no cure and have affected millions of people. They’re […]
Genetic diseases are pathological conditions caused by a modification of the genome that causes the synthesis of defective albumins. This […]
Recent news has surprised some people, has even become a trend and debates have been started. We know that genetics […]
What Is The Role Of Genetics In Hair Loss?
Losing your hair can be a tough experience for a man. It might even make you feel like less of a man, even though not having a full head of hair is pretty common. Especially as you age, thinning hair and bald spots are often part of the parcel.
If you’ve been affected by a thinning hairline, you might be wondering what role do genetics play in hair loss? Or maybe you’re wondering whether you need to start taking tablets for hair loss, and whether that’s safe? (It’s good to know you have options if you feel the need to seek treatment).
Here are some facts on the role that genes play in male pattern baldness, as well as some advice on taking common hair loss treatments like Propecia (and how they work).
Hair loss genes can be passed down by either parent
According to a study by the National Center for Biotechnology Information, a hair loss tendency on both sides of the family is suggestive of a person’s predisposition to hair loss, with heredity accounting for 80% of the condition.
Not only can you inherit similar hair loss patterns from your parents, but you can also inherit a sensitivity to DHT (dihydrotestosterone), a male sex hormone that causes hair follicles to thin out and miniaturize over time, which is what leads to male pattern baldness.
Look at your mother’s side of the family (as well as your dad’s) to get a proper feel for what your hairline might look like in 10-20 years.
There is no single gene for baldness
Male pattern baldness (MPB) is a genetic condition that accounts for more than 95% of hair loss in men and affects two out of every three guys by the time they are 35.
It’s determined by your hair follicles’ sensitivity to DHT, or dihydrotestosterone, an androgen (male sex hormone) that is a byproduct of testosterone. The androgen receptor (AR) gene creates the receptor on hair follicles that interact with testosterone and DHT, and if your receptors are sensitive, hair loss can occur.
The androgen receptor is on the X chromosome, which is what leads many people to incorrectly assume that male pattern baldness comes from the mother’s side of the family.
In fact, it can actually come from either side of the family. (Quick lesson, in case you snoozed off during your high school biology: A male inherits the X chromosome from his mother and the Y chromosome from his father.)
Baldness doesn’t only come from genetics
If your DNA test says you’re likely to go bald, remember that it’s one of many factors that lead to hair loss. Even though the majority of cases of male pattern baldness do stem from genetics, there are other factors that can’t easily be determined from DNA testing kits like lifestyle and stress.
Remember, it’s important to contact a physician if you start experiencing hair loss because it could foreshadow serious health issues.
Here are some non-hereditary issues that can lead to hair loss:
- Autoimmune diseases like Lupus
Remember: Just because your grandpa went bald at 30, doesn’t mean you will!
New hair loss treatments
While you might not be that concerned about losing your hair and are quite content to shave it off, some men might feel the need to proactively address hair loss and seek treatment.
Especially if you’ve unexpectedly started to lose hair at a younger age, getting hair loss treatment might feel more important to you.
These days, there are plenty of affordable hair loss treatments, including prescription hair loss tablets, as well as over the counter creams and shampoos.
On the prescription side, Propecia (UK) is a very popular branded hair loss tablet with great reviews (active ingredient: finasteride).
Buying Propecia online is easy enough if you use an online pharmacy, but make sure you’re using a reputable one with a good online doctor. It’s important you make sure that the treatment is right for you first.
One month of Propecia will set you back about £50 in the UK, though the price does lower if you order Propecia in bulk.
You might also want to try other hair loss treatments such as: over the counter shampoos, cheaper and generic Propecia sold as Finasteride, other prescription tables like Avodart or Regaine, or even hair surgery (quite extreme and expensive, but possible).
Make sure you always read the label carefully and discuss your health in detail with your doctor before commencing a course of Propecia or any other popular hair loss pill.
What Is DNA? A Guide For The Beginner
Do you know what DNA stands for? Don’t worry, most people you know are in the same position as you. What you probably know is that DNA is hugely important, but you may not be sure exactly why. Without flooding you with information, below I’ve listed the basics of this crucial part of life as we know it.
Recommended reading: 4 Surprising Facts We Already Know About DNA
DNA is short for Deoxyribonucleic acid
Almost everyone has heard the acronym ‘DNA’ but few people really know what it means – let alone what those three letters stand for. DNA is short for Deoxyribonucleic acid and is a molecule that carries the genetic information of every known living organism, along with lots of types of virus – it’s the very essence of life.
DNA was discovered in 1869 by Friedrich Miescher
We’ve not always known that DNA was even a thing, less that it is so significant to our entire way of living. DNA was discovered by the Swiss biologist and physicist Friedrich Miescher, in 1869. Miescher arrived at his discovery by isolating nuclein, which has since been retitled to nucleic acids, from the nuclei found in white blood cells. Despite the work done by Miescher, it was Albrecht Kossel who crystalized the significance of DNA, which he did by looking at the chemical structure of DNA.
DNA is made up of two chains & one of four parts
As you may have spotted from the image at the start of this article, DNA is made up of two antiparallel chains – called polynucleotides. The two chains hold identical biological information, with this being duplicated at any points where the two chains separate from each other. The pair of chains in DNA is made up of more basic monomeric units, which are known as nucleotides. Nucleotides have one of four nucleobase parts – adenine [A], cytosine [C], guanine [G], or thymine [T].
DNA is arranged into chromosomes
I explained earlier how DNA is made up of two long strands, each of which contains one of four nucleobase parts, but that’s not all – of course. DNA is arranged into molecules called chromosomes which, in turn, are made up of DNA which is coiled around proteins which are known as histones.
What is the purpose of DNA?
Your body is made of an incredible amount of information which is used to make you the person you are – whether you have brown hair or blonde hair, blue eyes or green eyes, etc… The purpose of DNA is that it acts as a long-term storage device for all the information that is used to make you who you are. It’s such an effective storage device that scientists are using DNA as a template to solve our growing digital data needs.
DNA is a three letter combination that many of us know, but few of us truly understand – don’t worry, those who do often take years to get to grips with what it means and continue learning for the whole of their lives. While there’s much that goes into DNA, for the beginner there’s really only one thing to remember – DNA is where life starts and then continues, it’s the foundation of all living things.
What Is The Science Behind Exercise & Mental Health?
Mental health is one of the biggest killers on the planet, with suicide being the biggest cause of death in men under 40. There are many medical approaches to helping tackle mental health problems, but one of the most effective is one of the easiest to implement – exercise. Science is about getting the same results most of the time. If you exercise regularly it will almost always improve your mental health, and this is why…
Exercise helps your brain protect you from mental health issues
If you visit your doctor to talk about depression, the first thing you’ll be asked is “you exercising regularly?” Doctors have acquired a reputation for being liberal with prescription anti-depressants, but all GP’s know that exercise promotes changes in the brain that fight depression.
Exercising often means your brain is better equipped to fight depression because it helps to boost neural growth. Neurons help to control your moods and studies have shown that people will low and slow neurons are susceptible to depression.
Scientists have long since established the connection between endorphins and depression. Endorphins are peptides that awaken your body’s opiate receptors and lower your perception of physical and mental pain – the lower your level of endorphins the lower your mood. Exercise releases endorphins, making you feel good and more at ease.
Having an exercise schedule adds order to your life
Chaos can have a very detrimental effect on your mental health. When there’s no order you feel as though you aren’t in control, which can increase your levels of stress and anxiety. By adding an exercise schedule to your life you can regain control by bringing stability to your life.
A close friend of mine suffers from stress, anxiety, and depression. My friend visited a GP and they recommended he did two things to help his state of mind. Firstly, he suggested he begin making lists, so that he could record his achievements. Secondly, he advised creating and sticking to an exercise regime. My friend took the advice of his GP and his mental health is much improved.
Exercise doesn’t only help your state of mind by bringing order to your life. A schedule that you stick to gives you a regular source of self-affirmation by achieving goals. While self-affirmation doesn’t solve mental health issues, it gives you the strength, belief, and encouragement to work at fixing them.
Access your body’s natural Prozac by exercising regularly
Serotonin has been called your bodies natural Prozac because it helps to tackle anxiety, control your moods, and make you happier. Many studies have shown that exercising regularly is one of the best ways to increase the production and release of serotonin in your body – exercise makes you happier.
Aerobic exercises are the best for boosting your body’s serotonin levels. Some of the best aerobic exercises are cycling, swimming, running, and yoga – anything that works your oxygen levels.
While exercise increases your serotonin levels, some commentators have claimed that exercising too much can have the wrong effect on your body. People have argued that forcing yourself to exercise counters its mood enhancing quality, this being because you feel it’s working against not with you.
Exercise gives you a reason to get out of your house
Ideas about people with mental health problems being unwilling to get out of bed are neither helpful or true. Society has reached a stage where people are aware of how painful and difficult it can be to go outside if your mind won’t allow it. While mental health issues are a real and potent enemy to leaving your home, doing it has lots of benefits. Exercise gives you a reason to get out of your house.
Being outside gives you access to natural sunshine. Light is one of the greatest tools against depression, stress, and anxiety – it’s not without reason that Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is a mental health condition that millions suffer from. Sunlight increases serotonin levels and people often use SAD lamps to help mimic the effects of natural light. Exercising outside means you can boost your serotonin levels, helping to make you happier.
Exercising outdoors means you are surrounded by oxygen – even if you open every window in your home, you still won’t get as much air as you do outside. Oxygen increases the amount of serotonin in your body, sharpens your mind, and helps improve your heart rate. Choosing to exercise outside not only gives you a reason to get out of the house, it gives you access to one of the most important medicines in live – clean air.
Mental health is a broad church that covers a vast range of areas. Alongside therapists, councillors, and doctors, exercise recognised as one of the most important ways to support your mental health. When you visit your GP to talk about your mental health they may prescribe you a course of medication. What you can be sure of when you speak to a practitioner about your mental health is that they’ll ask if you’re exercising regularly.
4 Surprising Facts We Already Know About DNA
DNA is the abbreviation of deoxyribonucleic acid, which is responsible for the genetic functioning of all human beings. Basically, it works as storage where everything related to the organism and its function is found. Know some surprising facts we already know about DNA:
We Have DNA From Bananas And Monkeys!
Yes, as you read it. According to studies carried out by genetics professionals, humans share 50% of the composition of their DNA with bananas, as well as share almost 100% of the DNA with primates or also known as howler monkeys.
Discovery Of DNA
Calculate the entire DNA that people have in their human body, is practically impossible because we would be talking about hours and a time that’s uncountable and impossible to calculate.
The Operation When Receiving Transplants
Transplants in some cases are necessary so that the person can stay alive for more time. But especially with bone marrow, if you receive a transplant of it, you will have two types of DNA profiles in your body.
Origin Of Human Reproduction
DNA replicates or duplicates, which means that thanks to it, it’s the origin or reason of reproduction by humans. Curious but true.
The DNA as it works also as genetic storage of our organism, the formation is influenced by almost 10% of viruses or infections that we suffered previously.
In spite of being something complex, really it’s a fundamental part of our body, we need to give it great importance. And nowadays thanks to the modern and advanced era that we’re living, we are even doing great and beneficial things with genetic engineering.
The 4 Most Common Genetic Conditions in the US
Genetics is one of the most complex issues that exist, with various cases that have impacted the world by the number of disorders or conditions that can develop through DNA as an inheritance of a family member. Here we bring you some of the most common genetic conditions in the US:
According to studies carried out, there is half the probability that someone can transmit this same disease to their child in case one of their parents has it. And the most curious thing about this disease is that it’s usually detected after 30 years.
This is an anomaly in the chromosomes of pair 21, causing mental and developmental delay. Normally this disease is detected once the child is born, but some cases have been detected before being born with prenatal tests.
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
This disease is characterized by progressive muscle weakness in people, usually detected from children. In addition, it’s more common in children who have a certain delay or a heart or respiratory problem.
Cystic fibrosis is a genetic and hereditary disorder commonly when both parents are carriers, which affects the lungs and the digestive system. The cure hasn’t yet been found, so all sufferers must undergo treatments to try to control this difficult disease.
Genetics is something unpredictable, something that nobody can control. They’re biological and parental issues that you should simply assume, understand and start to treat seriously and medically.
The 7 Worst Genetic Diseases in the World
Genetic diseases are the most serious and lethal because they have no cure and have affected millions of people. They’re those types of diseases that simply develop, without warning, without waiting for it. So we leave you some of the worst genetic diseases in the world:
This disease is a disorder that causes blood to not clot normally. It hasn’t cure; you simply have to undergo treatments. Some of the symptoms are large or deep bruises, joint pain, unexplained bleeding, and etcetera.
This is the most common genetic disease in the United States, with a large number of people suffering from this disease without any cure. It’s formed by mucus that blocks everything that’s respiratory, and produces infections in the pancreas and affects the digestive system.
This disease is one of the strongest and deadliest that even many cases have caused the death of children who don’t reach 6 years. It’s basically a disorder that destroys nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord due to the lack of an enzyme called Hex-A.
This disease is lethal as it attacks the brain, weakening neurons over time. It’s another of the most common diseases in the United States since according to statistics more than 70,000 people carry this gene.
Obesity is another disease that even many studies claim is the hereditary disease that most suffer in the United States. It’s said to be hereditary because it’s influenced by genetic a stimulus, that means when you have obese parents the risk of suffering from this disease is bigger.
Believe it or not, alcoholism is considered a disease that’s inherited through the genes, usually if one or both parents are addicted to alcohol. According to studies, this disease has caused death in thousands of people.
These diseases are so serious that even children, who have suffered it, end up dying. That’s why even many genetic scientists are trying to find cures for these deadly diseases since millions of people have come to death thanks to them.
Types of Genetic Diseases to Learn About
Genetic diseases are pathological conditions caused by a modification of the genome that causes the synthesis of defective albumins.
This type of ailments can be hereditary or not, depending on whether the altered gene is present in the germ cells (ovules and spermatozoa) or in the somatic cells, in this case, it will not be hereditary.
The way in which the disease is inherited can help to establish the risks that will be present during pregnancy and the risk that it will show again in subsequent children.
Types of genetic diseases:
Monogenetic Flaws: That affects only one gene, this disorder tends to have a higher risk of being inherited as for example:
Achondroplasia: Is the condition that affects poor bone growth and dwarfism.
Marfan Syndrome: Connective tissue disorder that causes long limbs and heart defects.
Cystic Fibrosis: Atrophy of glands that produce mucus in the lungs, poor functioning of the pancreas and problems in the absorption of medications.
Chromosomal Disturbances: Where the chromosomes (or part of chromosomes) are missing or change, such as:
Down Syndrome: The cells contain 3 chromosomes on the number 21.
Turner Syndrome: One of the sex-determining chromosomes is not transferred to the genome, leaving only one X chromosome, or a total of 45 chromosomes.
Deletion: It is the absence of a chromosome.
Multifactorial: Where there are mutations in two or more genes, in this type, the lifestyle we lead and the environment can intervene. It is almost impossible to predict the inheritance of anomalies caused by multiple factors. Some examples are heart defects, cleft lip, cleft palate, and neural tube defects.
Teratogenic: It is the scientific branch that studies the abnormal creatures, what does it mean? which studies those natural individuals in a species that do not respond to the common pattern that is altered when a substance affects the fetus, such as medications, alcohol, exposure to high levels of radiation, etc.
How to diagnose genetic diseases:
Screening Or Neonatal Screening: It is done from obtaining a small sample of blood from the newborn and this sample is taken to a laboratory and analyzed to rule out a series of genetic diseases.
Prenatal Diagnostic Tests: To perform the test, a sample of tissue can be obtained through amniocentesis or chorionic villus, used to detect changes in the genes or chromosomes of a fetus.
Predictive Or Predisposition Tests: they serve to identify people at risk of a disease before the onset of symptoms, such as mutations that increase the risk that a person develops a disease of genetic origin, as is the case of some types Of cancer.
It is necessary to control the DNA of each parent to know some genetic inheritance patterns that they did not know they had, as well as having a history of diseases of their parents and know what they can find later.
NASA Claimed DNA Ingredients Came from Space
Scientists are brilliant people who have a lot of power in their hands because they can create incredible things that we can ever imagine.
And this time wasn’t the exception. According to several reports, the scientists have carried out an experiment with DNA exactly with important components of its creation and are similar to those that have meteorites in space.
The Double-Helix Code
All of this was achieved with the creation of 2-deoxyribose, a compound that works as a double helix code on earth. And in addition, everything was subjected to tests and comparisons with real meteorites that confirmed the invention of the scientists.
Even real meteorites were created to see how accurate their discovery and creation of the compound had been. Also using sugars derived from DNA as such.
NASA Did Its Own Investigation
Everything was carried out by the scientists of the NASA. They first started working with ice created with water and methanol, which were then bombarded with radiation to check their resistance.
And also, they verify that some components of the earth were created by things that are in space, such as comets, meteorites and many other things.
The most surprising of all is that this was an investigation that took more than 25 years, where various experiments were carried out to recreate the functioning and condition of how things in space have been of great importance in biology.
Everything Was Published
The magazine Nature Communications, specialized in publications of scientists, was the means of communication that was used to publish this arduous research that took so many years to yield the component results.
In the same investigation, some other substances in space were also used as an experiment form, which is located in the molecules. But undoubtedly the ideal result was what they could obtain by producing sugars and components of space that function as the genetic code of life.
The meteorites were a key to the discovered result, especially the carbonaceous chondrites that make up the meteorite as such. And between one of the assumptions to which the researchers came, was that possibly components of life reached other planets in the same way.
Possibly many seem crazy or believe that it goes against any theory that’s in books and more. But it really is a great discovery that should be given great importance.
Is This True? – Gene-Edited Babies Started in China
Recent news has surprised some people, has even become a trend and debates have been started.
We know that genetics is a complicated area, where many scientists have spent their entire lives doing research on genetic disease cures or to achieve genetic improvements in people, even before they were born. Which many have thought is very crazy.
China Took The Flag
But the day has come where a Chinese scientist has apparently discovered a way where he genetically modifies babies so that they don’t suffer from some diseases, specifically using one of the DNA components called Crispr.
MIT Technology Review was the magazine that revealed this, commenting that He Jiankui was the scientist who carried out this experiment, where even he said that he came to modify the DNA genes of twin babies specifically named Lulu and Nana.
These girls were only weeks old, after coming to the world by in vitro fertilization. But his scientific intervention is carried out by modifying their genes to avoid that at some point in their lives they can get AIDS.
There’s Still No Cure
The scientist also clarified that he hasn’t yet found the solution or cure for genetic diseases. He simply discovered a way to avoid specifically contracting HIV. All of these was achieve after a long period of study, where Jiankui discovered that could do it deactivating the CCR5 gene, which is responsible for making HIV manifest in cells.
Undoubtedly, it has been news that may cause controversy, but it’s showing that scientific, medical and technological advances can achieve great things in society. Above all, what many people expect is a cure for serious illnesses that have affected so many people such as AIDS, cancer, and even the same genetic diseases.